Stakeholder engagement and consultation

Stakeholder engagement and consultation is an important element of many societal impact assessment approaches. This page contains resources and information on methods and approaches to stakeholder engagement.

The following questions, adapted from Prainsack (2014) help to assess the agency of public participants in impact assessment projects.

Coordination: Who has influence in:

1. Agenda setting

2. Determining the terms of the execution of the idea/procedural aspects

3. Deciding what results are (and what ‘good’ results are)

4. Deciding what will be done with results

5. Deciding on intellectual property questions


6. Who participates (demographic and social parameters of those who participate)? Why, and how do they participate?

7. How much, and what kind of, training, skill, or expertise is required to participate in this project?

8. Are there cultural, institutional, or other differences in perception and framing of core issues and stakes?


9. What forms of community pre-exist this project, if any? Which new communities does the project facilitate or give rise to? What is the constitutive factor for the feeling of belonging on the side of the participants?


10. How and by whom is it decided what good outcomes are?

11. What happens to the results of these evaluations?

Openness and information symmetry:

12. Do participants in the project have access to the core data about the project?

13. Can participants in the project edit/change the core datasets?

14. Is the contribution of participants adequately acknowledged in published materials, and policy briefing documents, etc?

15. Are datasets made publicly accessible (open source/open access)?

16. Are main findings made publicly accessible (open source/open access)? Are assessment reports  made publicly accessible?


17. How is the assessment project funded?

18. What is the role of for-profit entities in this assessment project? Are these small, medium-sized, or large entities, and where are they located?

19. How are for-profit and other interests aligned in this assessment project (and/or do they conflict, and where?)